In natural water bodies, sufficient oxygen content in water is provided by “green plantings” and the photosynthesis process occurring in them. Also, part of the oxygen is provided by a large contact area of water with atmospheric air. In the conditions of artificial reservoirs it is rather difficult to reproduce these processes to the full. Therefore, they resort to forced saturation with the help of water pumps.
However, from each rule there are exceptions. This axiom is not passed and the statement that the air pump for the aquarium is required. Some species of fish breathe atmospheric air, rather than dissolved in water. And if you plan to populate a homemade artificial reservoir, for example, with pearl gouras, macropods, speckled catfish or Coridoras catfish, then this accessory is not necessary for them. Although a veil of small bubbles in the background will add additional attractiveness to the aquarium.
Also, the water pump is optional for aquariums whose population is sparse or the presence of fish is not planned in principle.
an air pump for an aquarium releases small air bubbles into the water, which rise to the top and promote good mixing of water in the aquarium, thus creating an air lift, providing not only effective saturation of the water column with oxygen, but also contributing to uniform water temperature throughout the aquarium. The air pump for the aquarium also ensures the optimal functioning of water airlift filters, which, in the absence of an air pump, will not work at all. the aquarium inlet pump is an indispensable and important device for ensuring the health and comfort of ornamental fish.
The basic rule of choice.
Choosing an air pump for an aquarium, you need, first of all, to focus on its performance. The desired value of this indicator is directly dependent on the volume of water that needs to be saturated with oxygen. It’s easy to calculate sufficient performance. It is enough to multiply the displacement of the aquarium by 0.8. It is this performance per hour per liter of volume that will be quite sufficient to provide the required degree of aeration. Although, as experts note, in some cases this figure can be reduced to 0.5 l / h, and in some cases it is better to increase to 1 l / h. Pressure (MPa), this indicator serves to ensure that the client is guided by what depth the water pump is intended. The maximum possible depth of immersion of the sprayer depends on the pressure created by the pump vodushny and here the height of the aquarium served by the aerator and the material (density) of the sprayer are the reference. In high aquariums, the lower layers of water are poorly saturated with oxygen, which leads to the mandatory aeration of water by a pump. The higher the aquarium, the more powerful the water pump is required to create more pressure. It is better to purchase a water pump with a pressure margin (for greater height), since over time, the resistance of the sprayer increases due to clogging of the pores.
Some people mistakenly think that the main criterion is the displacement, but you need to focus on such an important criterion as the depth of the aquarium. The deeper – the harder the water pump to push the water column, the more power it will spend. It all depends on what kind of inhabitants will inhabit the aquarium. After all, each type of fish feels more comfortable in conditions as close as possible to the natural.
The power of the water pump is very important, especially in deep aquariums and / or when using long and / or dense sprayers. For example, you would like to use a long sprayer, the entire length of your tank. And it can be a spray from 50 cm to one meter and more. This is where a powerful water pump is required to blow this length of sprayer. Or you have an aquarium height of 70 cm and above. The more powerful the water pump, the easier it will cope with the water column. In small aquariums of 50-100 liters, it is also recommended to use powerful water pumps, since on such models there are always air supply regulators, you will avoid strong water movement in the aquarium from bubbles, adjusting it, but extend the efficiency of the air pump itself. If the water pump is in the nightstand under the aquarium – the height of the stand is large (80 cm), plus the height of the aquarium (50 cm) is somewhere around 1.30 m total height, then the power of the water pump is very, very relevant. In this case, do not forget that the length of the sprayer also plays a role. Add it to the height of the cabinet and the aquarium, and now remember that the length of the hose coming from the water pump to the sprayer increases by one more size, because it not only reaches the edge of the aquarium, it sinks into it and stretches along the bottom.
Autonomous water pumps
Small units operating from an alternative power source, capable of delivering air to the aquarium, in the absence of a main power supply. Sometimes such water pumps are equipped with a whole complex of various devices allowing both charging batteries and supplying air automatically when the main equipment is disconnected.
For more efficient saturation of water with oxygen requires the maximum number of air bubbles of the minimum size. It largely depends on the quality of the sprayer – it must be dense enough to produce small bubbles. The size of the bubbles significantly affects the enrichment of water with oxygen, since the smaller the bubbles, the better the oxygen passes into the water. Tests have shown that with aeration with small bubbles (pore diameter of about 0.1 mm) oxygen enrichment of about 10 g per cubic meter of air is achieved at an immersion depth of 1 m; while aeration with large bubbles (bubble size 2 mm) reduces this amount by half. Most sprayers, among which emit ceramic, carborundum, wood, plastic and others, provide gas bubbles with a diameter of 2.0-2.5 mm.
When air bubbles rise, they constantly take the border water with them, as a result of which an upward flow of water arises. There is a very small difference in velocity between water and air bubbles. The bubble moves in a very uniform flow and the more pronounced the turbulence is, the better the surface layer will be removed on the bubble that is saturated with oxygen. Water depleted in oxygen is rapidly supplied to the surface of the bubble and enriched with oxygen. The use of porous stone is ensured primarily by water turbulence. Large bubbles quickly rising up quickly pollute the upper glass and interfere with the aquarium lighting. The use of air bubbles formed by a spray from a water pump can serve as an additional element for decorating an aquarium, and for saturating water with oxygen. When the pores of the sprayer are clogged, it can be restored by first taking out a plastic tip by calcining on a fire or by immersion in acid (vinegar), which will dissolve hardness salts deposited in the pores.
It is impossible to use conventional sprays when ozonating water. Sprayers should be made of plastic, and air ducts made of polyethylene. In no case can not use metal parts, because they will react with ozone.
The most common short cylindrical sprays made of brownish abrasive materials give excessively large bubbles; slightly better sprayers made of white grinding stone. But those and others are suitable for equipping the absolute majority of even the most low-power pumps. The maximum efficiency (up to 53%) is characterized by expanded clay sprayers. Ceramic sprayers give smaller bubbles than dark-colored abrasives and white ones made of a grinding stone, but they require water pumps that develop a pressure of at least 1000-1500 mm of water column. However, they have one drawback in common with abrasive sprays: a narrow column of bubbles creates not very efficient circulation of water in a spacious aquarium.
Currently, there are commercially available long tubular and rectangular sprays, the length of which is approximately equal to the length of the rear or side wall of the aquarium. The color and shape make it easy to disguise them in the thickets of plants (they are attached to the smooth surface with suckers), and the bubbles can be both small and large, thanks to the air supply regulator on the hose. The presence of several sizes (length from 5 to 120 cm) allows you to choose a spray just for your aquarium, and the wide front of bubbles creates active movement of water, even in a very large household pond. They create a uniform air wall along the entire length of the smallest bubbles, which looks very impressive and useful for fish. And, accordingly, it is better to place them along the back or side walls down near the very bottom. There are models of flexible nozzles – they can be stacked with various shapes.
In order to bring the interior of the aquarium closer to the natural one, the sprayer can be decorated with large stones, a bark, plants or a stone ridge. The sprayer should be placed on a stone, a detail of the decor, or placed at a short distance from the ground so that air bubbles do not pick up particles of dirt, which can then settle on the plants and clog the filters. They are easy to disguise, putting on the ground and pressing something heavy (without additional fixation of the hose or the sprayer itself, the hose rises to the surface with a sufficiently intense air supply and pulls the sprayer behind it). Sprayers that receive air through the same line can pass through different amounts of air due to different lengths of pipelines, hose bends, and debris in the nozzles themselves.
Inlet blower tubes.
The nozzles for the air ducts of the vast majority of micro-air pumps and nozzles are designed for hoses with an inner diameter of 4-6 mm. For most pumps, they are evenly cylindrical in shape and putting on a hose requires some physical effort (to facilitate the procedure, the chamfer is usually made at the outer end of the nozzle). Pipe fittings with a slightly tapered profile are much more convenient – they are easier to put on a hose, and they hold just as firmly, especially if they have embossed walls.
Care should be taken when purchasing the hoses themselves. The tubes should be made of synthetic rubber, and preferably vinyl chloride, in extreme cases, of bright red rubber. Rubber medical hoses are of little use. Tubes of black color contain toxic impurities, yellow-red contain harmful disinfectants. Hoses should be elastic, soft to the touch, camouflage color, better with a certain margin in length. One of the indicators of the quality of the hose is the diameter of the bend without the formation of a crease: naturally, the smaller the diameter of the bend, the better.
They are mounted into the gap of the hose and serve to prevent inertial suction of water into the housing of the water pump. There are a lot of valve models, so you have to choose the taste and color for yourself. The nipple diaphragm system inside the valve is reliable and practical. If the valve is installed closer to the water pump, when aeration is turned off, the water will fill the hose to its full length to the place where it is installed. If the valve is installed on the hose, just above the water level, then when the water pump is turned on, it will have to push the water out of the hose in a small area, from the valve to the sprayer. The valve is a very useful and necessary accessory for a water pump, because disconnection of the total electricity is a common fact, and we can be outside at home at this time. I would not want to see the leaked water from the aquarium to the floor. It should be borne in mind that the check valve slightly reduces the air supply capacity and this should be taken into account when selecting a water pump to deep aquariums and long and / or dense sprayers.
Installation of aquarium water pump
Installing a water pump in the aquarium is necessary according to certain rules.
It is necessary to designate the place in which the water pump will be located. Perhaps it will be the aquarium itself or the area near it – a table, a lid. The location of the water pump is also different, it can be an area above the water or in the water column (here we are talking about centrifugal pumps capable of performing the function of an aerator (note editor)). Aerator is best located near the heater. When heated, the water will immediately mix, thereby creating an optimal microclimate for fish habitat.
If the air pump in the aquarium when working is very noisy, it should be installed on any soft surface, namely foam rubber or foam. This trick will reduce some noise. It must be remembered that the air pump for the aquarium tends to clog, therefore it requires regular cleaning. If not to carry out cleaning, then the water pump can fail, if the device is heavily polluted, the noise level increases.
According to the principle of operation, the air pump for the aquarium can be diaphragm or piston. The first kind has less power. But at the same time such water pumps are cheaper. However, for amateur aquariums with a capacity of up to 200 liters the capacity of a membrane water pump will be quite enough. At the same time, the price of such water pumps is significantly lower. Therefore, it is not necessary to arrange an unnecessary “arms race” for anyone, spending extra money on it. True membrane, often referred to as vibration, water pumps can be sources of significant noise. In piston models, this disadvantage is somewhat less pronounced. In addition, there are centrifugal pump pumps that can saturate water with oxygen from the air using a special nozzle.
When choosing a water pump, pay attention to the presence of an air supply adjustment. This can be accomplished by installing a flow shut-off valve on the duct. But it is better to opt for a model in which the flow is regulated by a smooth change in performance.
Another argument in favor of a particular model of a water pump can be the noise level during its operation.