Until recently, very few people thought about what a vacuum pump is and why it is needed. But this is an indispensable thing both in everyday life and in industrial production, small-scale production of various products, for packaging and for solving many technological problems. As a rule, these devices are made only under production conditions, but with certain skills and components, it can be made with your own hands.
What is a vacuum pump
The vacuum pump is, in principle, a fairly simple design. The principle of its operation is the evacuation of air from a given volume. For pumping, of course, you need a device that can be an analogue of a pump or an ordinary pump itself. But first it is worth considering the scope of the device in everyday life.
Powerful models of industrial vacuum pumps are used in technological processes of the chemical industry, for pumping large volumes of non-aggressive gases and liquids. Also, the vacuum pump is indispensable when molding plastic and polyurethane products. To do this, use vacuum containers with pumps of different sizes and different capacities.
What are vacuum pumps used for?
In order to understand why a vacuum pump is needed in everyday life, and not to build an exclusively hypothetically useful device, let’s look at a few examples:
- Vacuum packaging. The most reliable and simple option for long-term storage of food. Due to the fact that oxygen is not in contact with the surface of the product, the food does not dry out and is reliably protected from bacteria. Actually, this is necessary for long-term storage. The vacuum pump evacuates air from a given volume, in our case, a plastic bag, completely enveloping the product.
- Packing bulk soft items. Vacuum pump can be useful when packing blankets, feathers, soft toys. For what? Very simple. When transporting such products take up quite a lot of space. If you use vacuum packaging, the volume occupied by the object will be reduced several times.
- Wood lamination, plywood. A vacuum pump with their own hands from a water pump, of course, will not allow the lamination of large products, but small details, for example, for modeling, are perfectly laminated using such a device.
- Manufacture of molded plastic molded products – packages, boxes, containers.
- For pumping air, liquids and gases not directly to the pumps, but using the receiver.
The principle of operation and the simplest vacuum pump
The simplest vacuum pump is a medical syringe and non-return valve from an aquarium water pump. No need to explain the principle of operation of the device – for several cycles of suction with a syringe, you can pump out air from a small volume, no more than a small package the size of a matchbox.
To work with more serious volumes, it is necessary to use either more efficient pumps with some modifications or a water pump. The power of the water pump depends on the need for a vacuum cleaner, and the water pump can be either miniature, aquarium or more powerful – for pumping car tires, painting. But the essence of the alterations from this does not change.
We use a membrane water pump from the aquarium
For example, to be used as a vacuum pump of a water pump from an aquarium with a minimum capacity, it is enough to modify the site where the valve is located and to build in a pipe for draining condensate and moisture.
For this it is necessary to swap the valve, then the diaphragm pump will not pump air, but will pump it out of a certain volume. The diaphragm pump designs are different, but the principle of modernization is one. An example of converting a small aquarium pump into a vacuum one is shown in the photo.
For more serious tasks it is necessary to use a water pump more powerful. For example, you can use the device from the old refrigerator. As a rule, with the help of such an oil-type vodushnogo pump, it is possible to achieve a pressure of about 5 atm, which is quite enough for domestic needs. The device assembly scheme is quite simple.
High performance oil and oil free water pumps
The oil water pump is connected to the receiver, which can be any small gas cylinder or similar vessel. The pump has three outputs:
- for the gulf of oil;
- for air intake;
- for air supply.
Then everything is simple – the usual engine oil is poured into the water pump through the appropriate tube, a dust collecting filter is connected to the air intake tube, and a receiver is connected to the air supply tube through a splitter. Now the device can be used both as a water pump with a receiver, and as a vacuum pump with a rather high capacity. For use as a water pump, it is sufficient to connect the air supply hose to the splitter from the receiver. If the device is needed as a vacuum pump, then the hose is connected to the air intake pipe.
This is by no means all methods and variants of reworking water pumps into vacuum pumps. In the case of an oil-free vodoshny pump, there is no need to install an oil separator, but the filter on the air inlet pipe must be installed without fail. Experiment, and to solve any problems you can assemble a vacuum pump from improvised means.