Vacuum pumping equipment is widely used to solve various problems of domestic and industrial scales. Such aggregates are used primarily for pumping out vaporous and gaseous substances.
The considered equipment is very convenient, however its cost is unacceptable for many potential users. But craftsmen have found a way out of this situation, learning how to assemble vacuum pumps on their own, mostly adapting to this other equipment.
Before proceeding with the manufacture of a vacuum pump, familiarize yourself with the basic principles of operation and types of such devices.
The mechanism of action of the equipment is based on the creation of a vacuum. Depending on the purpose, the equipment in question is classified into low, medium, high and ultra high vacuum pumps.
In everyday life, simple homemade designs are usually used, made on the basis of ordinary pumps, air pumps and other equipment suitable for these purposes.
The vacuum pump is made of an ordinary lip pump used by car owners. Even a simple bicycle pump or other similar device can be used as a basis.
In the application of complex technological methods and special equipment is not necessary. Alteration of the automobile pump into full-fledged vacuum equipment is carried out in several stages.
First step. Disassemble the source pump.
The second step. Expand the cuff of the car pump 180 degrees. By changing the position of the cuff, the air will not be pumped into the container, but drawn out of it. Such equipment is perfect for solving various tasks that do not require the creation of a deep vacuum.
The third step. Assemble the unit in the reverse order of disassembly.
Fourth step. Install the check valve. To solve this problem, you can use a valve that takes part in the transfer of air from the injection pump into the tank (aquarium). This valve must be installed between the hose and directly to the pumps.
At this simple household pump is ready. Provided that all the above steps of the manual are carefully and correctly performed, ensuring sufficient tightness of each interface, selecting a suitable high-quality plastic valve, such a simple vacuum unit can suck up to 75-85% of the total air volume. For comparison – in a vacuum cleaner this parameter is many times lower.
Water ring pump
It belongs to the category of low-vacuum pumping equipment. The design is a case with internally mounted plates. The plates are attached to the rotor. When plates are immersed in a liquid (most often it is water), its volume changes.
In the process of equipment operation, conditions are created sufficient to ensure a 90-95 percent vacuum. To increase the rate, it is necessary to replace water with another liquid having a higher boiling point, and to provide cooling of the pumped air.
Among the advantages of such a vacuum pump, it is necessary to highlight its high lifespan, ensured by the absence of rubbing seals and the utmost simplicity of design.
But there are a number of flaws unit and a number of disadvantages, namely:
- the need to organize the capture and disposal or recycling of lost working fluid with the inclusion of exhaust gases;
- the need for regular replenishment of the working fluid in the equipment;
- the need to ensure the cooling of the applied liquid to reduce the pressure of the resulting vapor.
Assembling a water ring vacuum pump is done in a few simple steps.
First step. Prepare an enclosure of suitable size. The pump body must be cylindrical.
The second step. Place a shaft with a fixed impeller inside the housing. The wheel should be equipped with blades of a relatively small size.
The third step. Provide fluid flow to the pump housing. Fluid must be supplied so that under its influence the blades rotate. Formed centrifugal force will force the liquid to move towards the walls of the body, and a vacuum will be created in the center of the device.
Such pumps are usually used in agriculture and in industry, in a city apartment they are unlikely to have any benefit, but such a unit can be useful to the owner of a private house.
Modifying aquarium water pump
If it is necessary to ensure a higher level of rarefaction, you can use equipment created on the basis of a domestic water pump capable of injecting high-pressure air.
There are no difficulties in reworking an aquarium water pump. The areas of use of such devices are quite multifaceted. For example, some owners use such pumps to eliminate the specific aroma that occurs during the distillation of alcohol.
Also, vacuum pumps of this kind are suitable for performing various experiments, during which some vacuum in distillation cubes and various fermentation tanks should be created.
First step. Unscrew the fasteners from the casing of the water pump used. This will help you a screwdriver.
The second step. Disassemble inside the water pump unit, which contains an element with valves.
The third step. Saw the corner of the body in a place convenient for leading the pump hose. Assemble the above water pump assembly in the reverse order and insert it into the housing according to the prepared hole.
Fourth step. Prepare a hole in the bottom wall of the part to remove condensate and water that has accidentally penetrated inside.
Fifth step. Equip the exhaust gas system from the vacuum pump. To do this, use glue and tube of suitable size.
As a result, the device, assembled in reverse order, will evacuate the air instead of forcing it.
When the vacuum created by such equipment, it will be possible to reduce the boiling point of the working fluids.
In this case, be sure to take into account the fact that in the process of performing such work, the resulting pairs will pass through the unit, which is absolutely undesirable. Therefore, it is necessary to include a sump and a receiver in the system – they will contribute to the dehumidification of the air.
The procedure for applying a vacuum pump will be considered on the example of pumping water from an aquarium. In general, the features of the use of such equipment remain almost the same for most situations.
Prepare the necessary fixtures. You will need:
Insert the nozzle into the tee hole. You can pre-make it from a tube of suitable size. Next, you need to screw the fitting on the valve with a pre-created thread, and then tighten the hose piece. It is not recommended to use a hose longer than 100 mm.
After that you need to insert the pump core into the second end of the hose. From the opposite side of the pumping core, connect the short hose for draining the liquid to the sewer system.
Connect the hose to the main outlet of the plastic tee, and then run the connected hose into the water tank.
At the same time, it is necessary to attach an aquarium siphon to the end of the hose to prevent the ground from being pulled into the vacuum unit.
As a result, the system will work in the following order:
- you open the tap;
- water enters the system;
- a vacuum is created in the hose;
- water is pumped out of the aquarium.
After the required amount of fluid has been pumped out, you will only have to shut off the flow of fluid using a tap and remove the siphon from the container.
Now you have an idea about the order of self-production of various models of vacuum pumps. The information obtained will allow you to make a pump on your own and save quite a substantial amount on the purchase of a ready-made factory-made device.
Video – Do-it-yourself vacuum pump
After studying the information about the design, you can make a vacuum pump with your own hands.
1 principle of operation
The principle of operation of the apparatus is to oust. The principle of operation is divided into two main stages:
- lowering pressure in a closed space;
- the time limit for which the pressure reduction should be performed.
The purpose of the units of this type in the evacuation of air, that is, creating a vacuum inside a specific container.
Vacuum pumps are used in such areas:
- Packing aggregates. For packaging tapes, production of bags.
- Chemistry. For continuous distillation of chemicals, gas compression and drying chemicals.
- Food. For cleaning fish and vegetables, processing milk, poultry, fruit.
- Polygraphy. In the printing and processing devices used vodshnye pumps.
- Environment. In this area, devices are used for aeration of structures, sewage treatment, filtration.
- The medicine. Breathing apparatus and dental equipment.
The devices are classified by type of impeller: they are divided into rotary vane and vortex units. Plate-rotary, in turn, are divided into dry and oily appearance.
2 How to make a vacuum pump?
It is possible to make a vacuum apparatus independently from such devices:
- cooling water pump;
- auto pump air pump.
Depending on the starting material, do-it-yourself vacuum pumps are used in different areas and for different purposes.
2.1 Do-it-yourself vacuum pump from a refrigeration pump
2.2 How to make a water ring type vacuum pump?
Apparatuses for pumping out air of the water ring type are used for agricultural machinery. Pumps out gas with impurities of moisture and dust.
- Inside the cylindrical housing is placed the impeller, with radial blades. The wheel should not be in contact with the body. The impeller rotates with the engine. The pump fills with water;
- The flow of fluid occurs from the tank or discharge pipe;
- Puller presses the bearing. Studs are inserted into the holes of the plates to press in. Tightening the nuts will be pressing the plate onto the shaft.
The advantage of the device is that there is no need to lubricate the working shaft with oil. Differ in durability. Operated at high temperatures.
2.3 Do-it-yourself vacuum pump from aquarium pump
At home, altering the aquarium inlet pump will not be difficult. To do this, it is enough to swap the valves located on detachable mounts. To prevent condensation, a hole is drilled in the housing.
2.4 syringe apparatus
This is the most budget and fastest way to self-fabricate a vacuum device.
- we will need a syringe (it is better to use fifty vat) tube, check valves that match in diameter;
- a hole is made in the center of the tube. A syringe is placed in the hole;
- two check valves are located on both sides of the tube. The first valve-suction, the second-producing;
- the suction valve is attached to a rigid tube;
- making movements with a syringe, air will be pumped out in the required capacity.
2.5 How to make a powerful vacuum pump from the syringe with your own hands (video)
2.6 How is a pump made from a car pump?
- the cuffed drain is removed from the lid open on the sleeve;
- after unscrewing the screw, the cuff is removed;
- turning it upside down, screwed into place. The rod is placed in its place;
- A ready check valve is connected to the formed suction tube. When installing pay attention to the fact that air must flow into the sleeve. For this blow in the valve;
- A tube is attached to the return end of the valve. The tubule should be made of dense material that does not respond to atmospheric material.
Such a self-made vacuum pump creates a rarefied environment in a food-grade vessel or case for storing clothes.
During the operation of the apparatus there are breakdowns. Having studied the materials and model of the unit, the repair of the vacuum pump is carried out independently. Independently repair your unit without recourse to specialists is possible when familiarizing yourself with the design of the device.
To create a vacuum unit is enough to have the source material. The type of source apparatus depends on the complexity of manufacturing and the purpose of the vacuum pump. The advantage of self-manufacturing of the vacuum unit is to save money.
Vacuum has long ceased to be exotic, used only in research laboratories and industry. Air can be pumped out for drying, packaging, as well as solving many production problems, including in everyday life.
For example, to repair a car or check the tightness of mechanisms. Such equipment is available in free sale, in different price categories and for various tasks.
For regular use, you can spend a certain amount, and enjoy a modern device. However, a homemade vacuum pump works no worse, and the savings will be substantial.
Immediately make a reservation: it’s impossible to make a vacuum pump with your own hands from scratch. The electric motor, piston group, valve will have to look somewhere. In any case, the cost of the product will be much lower than that of the purchased counterpart.
By and large, the technology does not differ from the injection pump. If it is primitive to argue, it is enough to turn the valve in the opposite direction, and instead of pressure we get a vacuum.
However, there are features. A vacuum pump for air exhaust requires a more thorough sealing, otherwise the performance will drop dramatically. In addition, if you use a unit for pumping liquids, or a lot of garbage in the air, you need to take care of the cleanness of the intake duct.
General rules of the mechanism:
- the piston (rotor, membrane) in the suction mode creates a vacuum in the chamber. At this point, the inlet valve is open, the outlet is sealed. The volume of the camera at this point reaches its maximum;
- when reversing, the inlet valve closes (keeping the pressure in the intake path low), and air is displaced through the exhaust valve. The volume of the camera reaches the minimum value.
A similar cycle is typical for piston or membrane systems. Rotary pumps move the suction chamber in a circle around the blades, alternately connecting the volume with the inlet or outlet valve.
Having dealt with the principle of operation, it becomes clear how to make a vacuum pump, having ready-made components.
Making a vakuumnik do it yourself
The simplest unit can be made from an old bicycle (car) pump. At home, its performance is enough for the eyes.
Vacuum pump from bicycle pump
The main element – piston cuff. It is made in the form of a truncated rubber cone, and at the same time serves as an exhaust valve. That is, during the return stroke of the piston, the cuff passes air.
After the alteration, the direction of the working stroke changes: pressing on the handle, you reduce the volume of the chamber, the air comes out through an inverted cuff. Pulling the handle, you create a vacuum in the chamber, which is actually required.
However, in this form, the pump will work only one cycle. In the normal state, air leakage is controlled by a valve in the pumped chamber. When creating a vacuum, another valve should be installed at the outlet of the pump. The same spool from the wheel, or a valve from an aquarium water pump, will do.
Then, during the return stroke, vacuum will remain in the intake tract, and excess air will be vented through the piston cuff.
Important! The shut-off valve should close in the direction of the pump, and not vice versa.
The design is primitive, simple to implement and quite effective. The only drawback is the lack of mechanization (it will be necessary to pump out the air manually), and the inconvenient direction of the applied effort. Pressing on the handle is easier than pulling it out of the pump.
This can be corrected by slightly modifying the mechanism. In this case, the piston cuff does not turn over, and the inlet hose fitting is screwed into the upper part of the housing. A shut-off valve is mounted on it. For tightness, a gland is installed on the stick stem (otherwise the system will be untight).
The design is a little more difficult to implement, but it is much more convenient to work with such pumps.
Vacuum pump from car water pump
Minimal improvements, this is the easiest version of a powerful vakuumnik (of course, if there is a donor air pump). If you have to buy the equipment – the idea loses its meaning, it is easier to take a ready-made vacuum pump.
The essence of the alteration is as follows: there are two valves on the cylinder, they need to be swapped. Outlet fitting
it is supplied with a shut-off valve to the air inlet, and instead of a regular intake valve, a new fitting is installed.
An intake hose with a valve is attached to it, which is locked in the direction of the air outlet. When the piston group works, from the point of view of the water pump nothing changes. Instead of compressed air, you simply use the generated vacuum.
A vacuum pump with your own hands from a water pump allows you not only to pump air out of food bags. You can equip a real vacuum chamber. For example, from a pressure cooker.
A vacuum gauge can be used to control back pressure.
Having figured out how to make a vacuum pump, consider the practice of its application. Simple operation of the pump is effective only in the movement of the mechanism, it is not always convenient. In addition, the vacuum pressure is variable. There are constant jumps (in time with the piston group).
When performing accurate work is unacceptable. If during pumping, the water pump suddenly stops, you can screw up the workpiece, which is processed using a vacuum (for example, fiberglass molding).
A vacuum battery is required – the so-called receiver. This is a sealed container made of durable materials that can withstand high pressure. As a rule, receivers of spherical or cylindrical shape with hemispherical ends are used.
Suitable gas cylinders, or old vakuumniki from the car. The principle of operation is the same as that of pressure receivers. It is necessary to maintain a certain buffer state when the pump performance changes, and to have a vacuum reserve when it dramatically leaks (for technological purposes).
The receiver is connected in series to the intake manifold, and is necessarily equipped with a pressure gauge. To calculate the working dilution parameters, the permissible pressure indicators for the selected capacity are applied. If you overdo it with pumping, the balloon may collapse inward.
Another case of the use of the receiver (though not quite in the usual sense) – pumping fluids. For such work it is necessary to make a kind of separator, separating the liquid from the air.
Capacity can be any, even a bottle will do. The plug includes two fittings:
- One is connected to the suction tube vakuumnika. It must be above the water level in the tank so that the liquid does not fall into the piston group of the water pump.
- The second fitting with a hose is connected to a container in which there is a liquid. When creating a vacuum in the bottle, due to the difference in pressure, the fluid is pumped to the separator.
If you do not know where to use a vacuum pump, it makes no sense to make it “for experiments”. You just waste your money. And if you need to use it – it is possible to save on the purchase, making the device with your own hands.
Video example of making a homemade vacuum pump from a water pump from a refrigerator