To provide their pets with comfortable living conditions, each aquarist buys a variety of accessories for the aquarium. As it is known, aquarium fish without oxygen suffer greatly, their appetite deteriorates, they grow poorly and may even die from oxygen starvation.
To avoid such problems, aquarists install special devices – air pumps that saturate the water with oxygen, spraying air bubbles into it. But there are aquarium fish that do not require oxygen. These are species that are adapted to existence in turbid reservoirs with a small amount of air.
What fish can live without aeration
These fish have a special organ that allows them to absorb oxygen from the surface of the water. It is called the gill labyrinth – so these fish are called mainly labyrinth.
Aquarium fish that can live without a water pump are:
- Petushki. They belong to the fighting fish, despite the relatively peaceful nature. They are aggressive, mainly in relation to each other. Frequent fights between males for territory or female. This is unpretentious and very beautiful fish, which can often be found at exhibitions.
- Gourami. One of the most famous fish, which has a peaceful nature, and loves to relax in the grottoes. Gourami is divided into several varieties – blue, kissing, honey. They lead an active, daytime lifestyle.
- Lyalius gets on well with peaceful fish. One of the most attractive of the maze family. This is a shy little fish that prefers a gregarious way of life, and lives only a few years.
- Macropods are considered aggressive fish. They are long-lived with an oblong body, which can live with other active species of similar size. They can not be settled with goldfish.
- African Ctenopoma also has a gill labyrinth. It cannot be settled together with guppies and neons, as it belongs to active predators, and is very demanding on the territory.
Aquarium fish living without oxygen require special maintenance conditions. Do not block their access to the air – make sure that aquarium plants do not completely cover the surface.
LIGHTING AND TEMPERATURE
For many fish species, the temperature in the aquarium should be 18–25 ° C in winter (in summer it may be higher), and the light is absolutely necessary for their normal vital activity, but it is also impossible to overheat. In the summer daylight should be about 14-16 hours, in the winter – 10-12. If the aquarium is on the window, it is customary to think that there is enough light in it. But this is not the case, and even in the brightest window of the plant, when there is insufficient light, they slow down their growth or simply die. Therefore, try to always be in the aquarium summer and maintain a light day at least 14-15 hours.
Electric bulbs are best placed on top, covering the reflectors. However, all the usual aquarium fish, except the characteristic ones, live well under side lighting. Therefore, novice aquarists can be recommended to place the lamp on the side, pressing it to the glass below the water level. If you have two aquariums, clamp the lamp between them. Do not be afraid, the glass will not burst: “accidents” of this kind occur only when the lamp is too high. Lamp power select based on the calculation of 10-15 watts per 1 bucket of water. This calculation is also suitable for those aquariums in which daylight does not fall at all. If the lamp is located at the top, its power should be increased by 20-25%, and when the lamp (provided appropriate insulation) is lowered into the water, the power can be two times less. This applies to incandescent bulbs. Daylight and white light tubes are usually placed on top. Successful aquariums with such lighting are rare.
With side lighting, it is usually not necessary to heat the aquarium. But if the temperature in it falls below 18 ° C, put a heating pad. The most simple and reliable hot water bottle with saline. The more salt you pour into the water that fills the heating pad, the higher the temperature will be. We need to start with a pinch, and then, if necessary, add more.
If the room is not too cold (temperature is above 18 ° C), it is better to turn off the lighting and heating for the night. Small gradual fluctuations in temperature (per day at 4-6 ° C) for fish are useful.
A freshly filled aquarium is very beautiful. But not for long, he pleases the eye: it will take one or two days, and light turbidity will appear, and after another 1 day clouds will appear. This bacteria multiply, the spores of which fall from the air, are brought in with the plants. And here the amateur lover often makes a mistake: he changes the water, and everything starts again. Meanwhile, if you wait three to five days, the dregs disappear. The water at the same time becomes transparent, slightly yellowish. Experienced aquarists call such water “residential”: it already has the usual aquarium microscopic inhabitants, mainly ciliates, there are some organic substances, and very few bacteria, since the multiplied ciliates destroy their excess.
Yellowish "living" water can stand in the aquarium for years without any substitution, without losing any transparency at all. Such water. It is necessary to take care of: in it – the guarantee of well-being of the whole aquarium. If the reservoir is of sufficient size, there are not too many fish, and there is no extra feed in the aquarium, such water does not need to be replaced at all for many months. If the aquarium is overpopulated, it is possible to change part of the water once every 7-10 days, not more than 1/3, cleaning the walls in front of this razor blade, collecting dirt from the bottom with a siphon. "Residential", old water needs to be saved. If you change it more than half, many bacteria reappear in the aquarium, the water becomes turbid again, and you have to adjust the normal mode again.
How to save the old water, how to ensure that the aquarium without unnecessary labor costs was always clean and beautiful? To do this, first of all, you need to properly feed the fish.
Fish in nature only in certain seasons of the year have feed in abundance. But even in this happy time in natural water there is never such a concentration of feed, which is often created in aquariums novice lovers. Meanwhile, every extra crustacean, every not eaten right there, in front of you, a worm, and even more so every extra pinch of dry or artificial food – the beginning of water damage. Therefore, the main, basic rule of a beginner amateur should be the following: it is better to underfeed the fish than to feed them. It is clear that for normal growth, development and reproduction of fish, as well as all living organisms, a varied and nutritious diet is required. But it is worth remembering that malnutrition, of course, within reasonable limits, does not harm the fish, and overfeeding is a permanent cause of water damage, illness and fish death. Adult and healthy fish will even survive a hunger strike of 15-25 days. During this time, they will clear the aquarium of algal fouling, organic residues, plankton.
A beginner amateur must feed the fish once a day, giving as much feed as fish will eat in 10-15 minutes. Excess feed, accidentally caught in the aquarium, should be immediately removed. Over the years, experience will come to you, and then you will be able to move to a more rational two and three times a day feeding.
You need to try to give the fish live food: bloodworm, cyclops, daphnia, tubifex, coretru, pottery worms. The latter especially should not be carried away: if you feed the fish with them, and only with them, the water spoils, and many species stop breeding. If there are no live feeds, dry ones are used: dry bloodworm, dry daphnia, dried gammarus. The most nutritious of these feeds is Gammarus, the worst is dry daphnia. To the latter it is useful to add fish oil (two drops on a matchbox of dry daphnia).
Remember that dry food can only be a temporary replacement for live food. Do not give them overnight, remove undisturbed residues immediately. As feed substitutes, you can use egg yolk (very little – it badly spoils water), milk powder, meat and fish meal, the smallest pieces of lean meat, liver, fish, bread, decoy, shredded and scalded dandelion, lettuce, nettle.
Store food should be in the refrigerator. Live food is kept in jars with a small amount of water, periodically changing it, bloodworms, which is the most versatile food – in a damp cloth.
In an aquarium where fish lack movement, the choice of food for them should be approached especially responsibly. If the water in the aquarium as a result of overfeeding slightly muddied, but the fish did not surface up, do not choke, the easiest way is to stop feeding for two or three days. Fish at this time will not starve: they will eat the remnants of feed, clean the plants from algae-weeds. Once the water has completely brightened, you can start feeding. If, after overfeeding, the fish floated to the surface, they began to capture the outside air, urgent measures should be taken: clean the bottom with a hose, change a third of the water.
SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF WATER FLOWER
There is no such amateur who does not complain about microscopic algae. It often happens that when there is insufficient light, the glass and plants are covered with brown bloom of diatoms. When green algae, rather than green algae, appear on glasses, appliances and plants, this indicates that the aquarium is lit very poorly. Brown algae usually appear in winter in aquariums devoid of artificial light. In such aquariums and plants fall ill. Their leaves and stems fade, turn yellow, become thin, flabby, begin to rot. It is easy to cure the aquarium from this “disease”: it is enough to add light by putting the aquarium in the lit place, but it is better to install lamps above it.
It is more difficult to get rid of flowering strings, green and blue-green algae. Their growth occurs because the aquarium is lit too much, the water often blooms (becomes green, opaque), and the plants and walls are covered with green algae-weeds.
So, consider the problem of flowering in more detail. In summer, under strong aquarium lighting and high water temperatures, it can turn green: This is the result of the mass reproduction of microscopic algae, most often euglene green. Sometimes microscopic algae appear in large quantities in an aquarium, which cause whitish-green turbidity of water. They develop in strong lighting aquarium. Green algae plaque on one or two walls, on devices that are in the water, on plants is usually harmless. As a rule, simply clean the glass of the aquarium with a scraper. And in order to avoid an excess of algae on plants and devices, fish are allowed into the aquarium, for example, some species of tooth-eating fish that eat them. A temporary shading of the aquarium or, if the artificial light is too bright, helps reduce the lamp power.
When the bloom of water has not gone too far, it does not cause much harm to the fish, unless, of course, these fish did not suddenly fall into such water. To get rid of this greening of water, the aquarium should be completely closed with a cloth that does not transmit light, or shade it in any other way. Keep the aquarium in this form should be to the clarification of water.
The second old, tried-and-true method of dealing with water blooming is as follows. A lot of daphnids are allowed into the aquarium: as many as the fish cannot eat quickly. And these crustaceans destroy algae: they feed on them. Only one day daphnia make the water crystal clear. It goes without saying that a lot of daphnids can be released only in an overpopulated aquarium, since the lack of oxygen will make the crustaceans die, increasing the spoilage of water.
Water in the aquarium will not bloom if its wall, on which the sun’s rays fall, is covered with rare gauze or a piece of thin white paper.
Often the greening of the water is not only due to the excessively strong illumination of the aquarium, but also due to the fact that too much organic residue accumulates at its bottom. If so, you must first remove them.
To the worst enemies of aquariums include blue-green algae. They multiply unusually quickly and inhibit the growth and the very life of plants, covering their leaves with a smelly film. It is necessary to fight these algae in the following way: clean the aquarium glass and devices from them with a scraper, carefully remove the film from the leaves of the plants with your fingers and remove the dirt from the bottom of the aquarium with a hose with a hose. In addition, it is necessary to loosen the soil and put into the aquarium fish that feed on algae. Feed them moderately.
In addition to blue-green and other algae, filamentous algae often breed on the illuminated walls of aquariums and on the leaves of plants. If they are bred a lot, they may be confused and die small fish. With filamentous algae, the following methods of control are possible: reduce the amount of light falling on the aquarium, settle as many snail-coils in it as possible, put fish eagerly in it. In a warm-water aquarium, these algae eagerly eat mollies with greed, and other viviparous fishes eat them, though not with such appetite. In the cold-water aquarium, the redgrass is superbly destroyed by ruddies and bitters. Many species of fish can be accustomed to eating yarn, but on the condition that there will be several mollies in the aquarium. Imitating them, the fish begin to eat algae.
It is also useful to know about the "secret of the brass coin." Some lovers purify water with silver, but they don’t really grow any plants, and the fish may have a negative effect on the metal. But where silver doesn’t help, brass coin is a great help! In order to avoid algae-weeds, experienced amateurs have been using this method for several decades. You should not think that as soon as you throw a brass penny into the aquarium, the algae will disappear right away. Brass acts slowly, and usually it takes a month to clean the aquarium. One five-kopeck coin in the absence of a water change is sufficient for an aquarium of three buckets. Brass does not have a depressing effect on all types of microscopic algae: some of them settling on the walls “cannot be bought for a penny”.
If instead of swimming back and forth, as they should, your pets end up sticking up above and eagerly trying to swallow the air, they lack oxygen. The disease is called oxygen starvation, or anoxia. When fish live for a long time in water that is poor in oxygen, they eat poorly, grow slowly, their reproductive organs change greatly, and they are no longer able to prolong their genus. If the fish can still lay eggs, this calf dies or the larvae hatch from it, the fry sprout, which also die. And if the fry remain alive, they grow slowly, despite the fact that they are very well fed.
When fish constantly lack oxygen, they can eventually die from suffocation – from asphyxiation.
If the fish begin to choke, you need to replace a part of the water in the aquarium and install an aerator – a device with which the water is blown with a finely sprayed air stream, and thus saturated with oxygen. In addition, with a sharp oxygen deficiency, a quick effect is the addition of a 15% hydrogen peroxide solution (1. a drop of concentrated hydrogen peroxide to 2 liters of water).
In order for the fish to stop experiencing a lack of oxygen, there must be plants in the tank: after all, they produce it. And since it is formed in the leaves of algae only in the light, it is necessary to place light bulbs above the surface of the water, and in the winter daylight hours should last 10-12 hours, in the summer – 15 hours. If there are plants in the aquarium, but they have grown strongly, this is also bad. Some of them should be removed, since at night they consume a lot of oxygen.
In addition, you can not give the fish a lot of food. All non-eaten and dead plant parts must be removed from the aquarium every day: reproduction of organic residues is accompanied by oxygen consumption.
The more inhabitants in an aquarium, the more oxygen they need. Therefore, extra fish and other inhabitants, especially mollusks, should be transplanted into another aquarium. But how many extra fish? It is difficult to give an exact answer, since much depends on the size and shape of the aquarium, on whether there is an aerator in it, on the type of fish, their size and biological features. However, it is possible to determine how many fish approximately should live in an aquarium. If the capacity of the aquarium is from 40 to 50 liters and the water in it is not aerated, then for each fish up to 5 cm long, 2 liters of water are needed, fish that are 8 to 10 cm long are 3-4 liters, and fish that are more than 12 cm, – 8-10 liters of water.
To understand what kind of fish it is worth getting, you need to figure out how much they can accommodate.
What fish can live without oxygen and filter. With an open aquarium?
- almost any, the main condition is an overpopulated aquarium, i.e. the volume of water should be able to provide livelihoods
number of fish planted )))
- Labies # 769; ntovy, or crawlers # 769; dny (lat. Anabantoidei, outdated name Labyrinthici), a suborder of perciformal fishes that have a labyrinth organ that allows the fish to breathe additional atmospheric oxygen. Predominantly freshwater fish with intermittent African-Asian distribution; Missing in Madagascar. Possess a wide variety of morphological and behavioral signs.
Gourami, macropods, swordtails, lyalius and many other famous aquarium fish.
Do not forget about plants and snails (they are part of the natural purification of water)